mahjong meaning chinese
December 5, 2020
If east player is a losing player he pays double the points to the winner. Mahjong is an ancient Chinese game that dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, and which gained great popularity in the 1920s. This determines the location where the 'deck' of tiles is cut. Each chain can have no more than two 90 degree turns. However, a great many games in China claim to have been invented by Confucius, so coupled with the lack of even a single ancient tile, this theory seems unlikely. Stealing tiles has both advantages (quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points) and disadvantages (being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared). When a meld (Pong, Kong, or Chow) is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by placing the three (or four) tiles face up. The ban on gambling after the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 led to a decline in playing. Das Spielprinzip von Mahjong 3D ist vielen schon bekannt aus Spielen wir Mahjong Dimensions. If only the dead wall remains (or if no dead wall exists and the wall is depleted) and no one has won, the hand is drawn (流局 liú jú, 黃莊 huáng zhuāng, Japanese 流局 ryūkyoku), or "goulashed". Zhè duì shuāngbāotāi zhǎng de hěn xiàng, xìnggé què wánquán bùtóng. Solutions include having the dealer penalised points, shuffling the turned over piece back into the wall somehow, allowing the player who the tiles were dealt to take the piece or not (meaning the dealer must take it as his/her 14th piece) or other house rules. This e-book will focus on Chinese Mahjong rules. This is a key difference to Chinese mahjong and serves to stop players from winning quickly with extremely cheap hands, meaning that higher scoring hands are more plausible, increasing the strategy and excitement in the game. A. Xiao Hong likes playing poker recently.  Since the 1980s, hundreds of different Mahjong arcade machines in Japanese video arcades have been created, including strip versions. How to Play Mahjong. In 1999, a second organization was formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. Meaning of mahjong. For these reasons Hong Kong mahjong is a suitable variation for the introduction of game rules and play and is the focus of this article. The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes. Counting anti-clockwise so that the dealer is 1 (or 5, 9, 13, 17), so that south (player to the right) is 2 (or 6, 10, 14, 18), etc., a player's quarter of the wall is chosen. Add our LinkedIn ID below: Join our Skype Group Chat to get FREE Chinese learning resources as well as instruction from our Chinese teachers. So let’s take a look at what you’ve learned and test you on it with a little quiz!  They may have been removed as the tiles share the same titles as the leaders of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864). The game Mahjong was called 麻雀 (pinyin: má què), meaning sparrow in Chinese, which is still the name used in some southern Chinese languages such as Cantonese and Min Nan and as well as in … The Origin and Development of Mahjong. Mahjong is a popular Chinese game with complicated rules that change depending on the region. Example: Some sets also contain blank tiles which owners can use to replace damaged or missing tiles. 2. In each round at least four hands are played, with each player taking the position of dealer. 1:15. An extra hand is also played if there is no winner by the time all the tiles in the wall have been drawn. II. Most of these form four series each of three suits: Bamboo (Sticks), Dots (Wheels), and Cracks (Numbers). The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus eight basic points from each player; in the case of zimo (self-drawn win), he receives the value of this round plus eight points from all players. However, as they have no corresponding seat position, any player who draws one of these gets a bonus point. Culin, Stewart, ‘The Game of Ma-Jong, its Origin and Significance’. This ends the hand, and scoring commences. Many mahjong sets contain 136 or 144 tiles. The doctor advised him to do more outdoor activities. This form of Mahjong uses all of the tiles of the most commonly available sets, includes no exotic complex rules, and has a relatively small set of scoring sets/hands with a simple scoring system. The diagonally positioned stacks and a smaller square creates a bigger space for players' tiles and also makes an ergonomic position for drawing tiles from the stack. A common scoring limit is 64 points, which is the highest base points doubled twice. The focus is on the rules of the game, and it requires ability and strategy in order to play well. A player who declares rīchi and wins usually receives a point bonus for their hand directly, and a player who won with rīchi also has the advantage to open the inner dora (ドラ, from "dra"gon) which leads to higher possibilities to match such a card, thus has more chance to grant additional bonus. This includes the 13 orphans, 4 concealed pongs, heavenly hand and earthly hand. The tiles are split into three categories: simples, honors, and bonus tiles. Players then push each side of their stack together to form a square wall. Each player then stacks a row of 18 tiles, two tiles high in front of them (for a total of 36 tiles). Winning hands are scored by totaling the point value of each element in the hand. Variations may have far more complicated scoring systems, add or remove tiles, and include far more scoring elements and limit hands. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules. Taiwanese Mahjong adds three tiles to a hand requiring a 5th set to be formed, making a clean hand or all Pong hand very difficult to procure. There are two sets of Bonus tiles: Flowers and Seasons. Leave your comments below and let us know your thoughts about these two games, your experience of playing Mahjong, or any other comments! For example, players will try to find seats with the best Feng Shui or wear their lucky clothing or trinkets. In mainland China alone, there are over thirty variants. Table rules dictate if these rare and special hands are allowed, which ones, and the limit for scoring. “麻将 (Májiàng) Mahjong” is a tool of mass entertainment, but also represents traditional culture, some people even call it “国粹 (guócuì) the quintessence of Chinese culture.” As any common Chinese person will tell you, playing Mahjong is one of those quintessential pastimes that helps relieve stress, regulate people’s moods and help them relax, but also gets their minds going and is the activity to enjoy during their downtime! In 2006, the World Mahjong Organization (WMO) was founded in Beijing, China, with the cooperation of, amongst others, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee (JMOC) and the European Mahjong Association (EMA). By convention all players should participate in shuffling using both hands moving the pieces around the table rigorously and loudly for a lengthy period. These base points represent how much the opponents pay to the winner. Having too few tiles to win (e.g. The other players have an opportunity to seize the discarded tile; if no one takes it, the turn continues to the next player. Some rules may replace some of the number 5 tiles with red tiles, as they can earn more points. There are four different ways that regular order of play can be interrupted: During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles (meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded). Following up is the three Dragons or Arrow tiles, which have derived their meaning from the ancient imperial exam, archery and Confucius’ cardinal virtues. The great mahjong book: History, lore and play. There are various sites in the Internet dedicated to the ancient game Mahjong. Journal Of Ningbo University(Liberal Arts Edition). Please Log in or Register or post as a guest. B. Xiao Hong likes playing Mahjong recently. Like many popular games, mahjong has many regional variations, from the Chinese prevailing wind system to American mahjong with special bingo-like scoring cards. The dealer draws a winning hand at the beginning of the game. Some sets include racks to hold the tiles, especially if they are larger or smaller than standard tiles or have an odd shape. Mahjong definition: a game of Chinese origin, usually played by four people, in which tiles bearing various... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Otherwise, the win declaration is penalized. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed (formed by drawing tiles) or exposed (formed by seizing the prior player's discard). The earliest surviving tile sets date to around 1870 and were acquired in Fuzhou, Shanghai, and Ningbo. Synonyms: There are a variety of counting pieces used in different countries. Some variations give points for concealed hands, in which case no melds are made except by winning on a discard. Any rule set can be adapted for three players; however, this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines. In: Depaulis, Thierry, ‘Embarrassing Tiles: Mahjong and the Taipings’. One example is the Pure Green hand made of chows or Pongs using 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 of bamboo and green dragon. There are two different sets of Honors tiles: Winds and Dragons. A marker is used to mark which player is East and often the round number. Add a meaning Cancel. The tiles must be identical (you cannot mix suits). “条 (tiáo)” in Chinese mahjong represents copper money, (a kind of ancient currency), which expresses the greatest desire, which is the yearning for wealth. It is similar to Western Gin Rummy in concept. While the origin of mahjong (麻將, ma jiang) is unknown, the fast-paced four-player game is very popular throughout Asia. Chinese Mahjong Terminology Mahjong is a game that originated in China, commonly played by 4 players. Its name is similar in other languages, except in Thai, where it is called ไพ่นกกระจอก (phai nok krachok), a calque meaning "sparrow cards.". It is not known when the conversion from cards to tiles took place precisely but it most likely occurred in the middle of the 19th century. We would love for you to share with us! In all the hands that require pongs, each pong can be replaced by the corresponding kong. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. Holiday Mahjong Dimensions. Scan the QR code below: Join our LinkedIn Group to get FREE Chinese learning resources as well as instruction from our Chinese teachers. Many consider the modern American version a Jewish remake, as many American Mahjong players are of Jewish descent. Like Chinese chess it is often played in tea-houses and the clattering of tiles on tables is a frequently heard background sound. Translation for 'mahjong' in the free English-Chinese dictionary and many other Chinese translations. Standard requirements for rīchi are that the hand be closed or have no melds declared (other than a concealed Kong) and that players already have points for declaration of rīchi. Vote & Rate 5. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that Mahjong from now on is considered a sport. They are six-sided dice, traditionally but not necessarily Chinese dice with red one and four pips. Pronounce word 150. Mahjongg spielen Übersetzung im Glosbe-Wörterbuch Deutsch-Chinesisch, Online-Wörterbuch, kostenlos. There are many governing bodies which often host exhibition games and tournaments for modern and traditional Mahjong gaming. The dealer is chosen by various means. Example: The Game People Played: Mahjong in Modern Chinese Society and Culture. Japanese mahjong, especially in a gambling environment, may optionally use four yakitori markers to indicate which players have not won a hand yet and has to pay a penalty. In: Stanwick, Michael and Xu, Hongbing, 'From Cards to Tiles: The Origin of Mahjong(g)'s Earliest Suit Names'. This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game. (When the wildcard indicator is chosen and exposed, only 3 tiles remain of the same denomination, so the next tile in the suit will also be used as a wildcard, adding to 7 wildcard tiles for 4 players.) Millionen Wörter und Sätze in allen Sprachen. The most likely ancestor to Mahjong was pènghú (碰和) which was played with 120 or 150 cards. Add collection 200. These rules will focus on the most basic rules of mahjong, which are the same across most other variants. Or missing tiles a different scoring system and the bamboo suit or at its! Version a Jewish organization Rummy in concept get stuck without a move 4th wind the case of double throws the... These base points when reaching a certain faan point target developed during this.. 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