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Aikawa et al. Algae Research Supply: Algae Culture Kit for Arthrospira platensis (spirulina) Algae Research Supply. The raceway pond was 6 m long and 1.2 m wide. Isolation, crystallization, crystal structure analysis and refinement of allophycocyanin from the cy... Antioxidant activities of phycocyanobilin prepared from Spirulina platensis. 1994). monitoring and managementÂ». These pigments work in conjunction with chlorophyll a to optimize light harvesting for photosynthesis, particularly under light limiting conditions. The PFD can influence cyanobacteria photosynthesis. Phenolic compound increases by altering the culture conditions and antioxidant potential of S. platensis exploit as a nutritional supplement (Colla, 2007). The cultivations were Biomass production by Arthrospira platensis under different culture conditions Distilled and deionized water was used in all cases. Results show that the kinetics follows a pseudo first order kinetics and remains unaffected due to the different initial concentration of phycobiliproteins. 2019). Les rÃ©sultats obtenus montrent que le fluor existe avec des teneurs variables, allant de 1mg/l Ã  3.6 mg/l. 2010). 2009). The result of â¦ https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00138541, Mundt S, Kreitlow S, Nowotny A, Effmert U (2001) Biochemical and pharmacological investigations of selected cyanobacteria. At very low frequencies, the viscous character predominated. This factor, combined with the efficient utilization of low-wavelength light, indicates the strong adaptation of this strain to its habitat. The determination of the best techniques to extract and purify the EPS, as well as the full characterization of the resulting product, could also bring it closer to industrial use (Delattre et al. The crystals belong to space group P6(3)22 with cell constants a = b = 101.9 A, c = 130.6 A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees, with one (alpha beta) monomer in the asymmetric unit. BURKHOLDER, R.V. A decrease in biomass production was also observed when the value of PFD was smaller. Manual shaking of cultures was done thrice a day. from marine cyanobacteria and their flocculation property. Carotenoids decreased to a lesser extent but their composition changed. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Synechococcus sp. The result for EPS content found by Trabelsi et al. The specific growth rate (μ) was determined over the exponential growth phase, and given by Eq. These experiments are designed to better understand the impa â¦ Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. J Fish Dis. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-020-00337-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-020-00337-3. (2009b), Chentir et al. Today these bacteria, as well as microscopic algae, supply oxygen to the atmosphere and churn out fixed nitrogen in Earth's vast oceans. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Phycocyanobilin as well as phytochemicals including-tocopherol, caffeic acid and zeaxanthin,effectively inhibited the peroxidation of methyllinoleate and produced a prolonged induction period.Oxidation of, Spirulina platensis is a highly potential Cyanobacteria (blue green algae) that acts as immuno-modulator. Optimum excitation-emission wavelength intervals (ÎÎ») for synchronous spectrofluorimetric analysis of the three phycobiliproteins were 10 nm for PE (LD = 10.9 Ã 10â3 mg/l) and APC (LD = 0.5 mg/l) and 40 nm for PC (LD = 0.77 mg/l). You can request the full-text of this thesis directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Nevertheless, it is possible to choose a condition in which the EPS content as well as biomass concentration could be produced at reasonable values. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out for EPS samples under nitrogen atmosphere on a TGA Q-500 equipment from TA Instruments (New Castle, DE, USA). Enzym Microb Technol 16:546–550. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2009.00183.x, Piedras FR, Baisch PRM, Machado MICS, Vieira AAH, Giroldo D (2010) Carbohydrate release by a subtropical strain of Spondylosium pygmaeum (Zygnematophyceae): influence of nitrate availability and culture aging. Google Scholar, Dejsungkranont M, Chisti Y, Sirisansaneeyakul S (2017) Simultaneous production of C-phycocyanin and extracellular polymeric substances by photoautotrophic cultures of Arthrospira platensis. Chlorophyll a, which absorbs light primarily in, C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue photosynthetic pigment and the major phycobiliprotein in many blue-green algae with high nutritional values and antioxidant, antivirus, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. All diets contained 18% protein, which was contributed by S. maxima or by casein or by a mixture of them. To do that, different extraction conditions were tested, including time, temperature and pressure of extraction, nature of pressurized liquid, distribution of microalga inside the extraction cell, type of packing, etc. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017, George EA (1976) Culture centre of algae and protozoa: list of strains 1976, 3rd ed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were carried out using a Perkin Elmer spectrometer, Frontier model (Waltham, MA, USA) at room temperature, using KBr disks, in the 4000–400 cm−1 range, with accumulation of 20 scans and 4 cm−1 resolution. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-017-1348-3, Decho AW, Gutierrez T (2017) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in ocean systems. (1956) was used to quantify the total carbohydrate content for each recovered EPS sample, by adding H2SO4 concentrated at 80% (m/v) and phenol at 5% (v/v). (2017), producing maximum yields of 210 mg L−1, 0.98 g g−1 and 772.1 ± 192.9 mg g−1, respectively. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10452-019-09699-z, Carvalho AP, Silva SO, Baptista JM, Malcata FX (2011) Light requirements in microalgal photobioreactors: an overview of biophotonic aspects. The lowest PFD (200 μE m−2 s−1) and NaNO3 concentration (0.5 g L−1) resulted in the highest EPS yield. Microorganisms may also have played a major role in atmosphere evolution before the rise of oxygen. The initial pH was adjusted to 10.1 ± 0.1 prior to the experiments. The challengeis to unify the molecular data with the increasingly well-established paleobiologicrecord. Consilio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome. Pierlovisi O., (2007) Â«L'homme et la spiruline : un avenir commun, composition chimique intÃ©rÃªts https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00823.x, Pignolet O, Jubeau S, Vacca Garcia C, Michaud P (2013) Highly valuable microalgae: biochemical and topological aspects. 1982;15:198â9. All rights reserved. Condition 9 was an exception, since this condition promoted one of the highest EPS yields and, at the same time, one of the highest final biomass concentrations. (Spirulina) intracellular and extracellular metabolites using multifactor stress combination approach. Phycobiliproteins are pigmentâprotein complexes, brilliant-colored and water soluble, existing in cyanobacteria and red algae. In the second, 55% of total EPS weight loss was observed with maximum loss at 240 °C (Mishra et al. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:595–602. The regression equation was generated, as shown in Eqs. Photocopy. 2016). 113, NaNO3 concentrations between 0 and 200 mg L−1 were used (Su et al. FacultÃ© de Therefore it is important to have a fast, easy, and reliable method to determine the content of phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC), and allophycocyanin (APC) in red algae. The results found in the present study demonstrate that the choice of the best culture conditions depended on the response of interest. 5 4\, + \, 8A\, - \, 1 5. Sorbonne. A 95% confidence level was adopted (p < 0.05). Sulfated heteropolysaccharides, frequently formed by neutral (xylose, galactose, glucose, fructose, rhamnose, arabinose and mannose) and uronic acid (galacturonic and glucuronic acids) repeating units, have been identified in the EPS of this species (Trabelsi et al. Although the PFD did not have any positive effect on EPS production, its interaction with the NaCl concentration provided a 0.98 g g−1 yield of EPS. In comparison to C-phycocyanin and b-phycoerythrin the major differences arise from deletions and insertions of segments involved in the protein-chromophore interactions. The second highest EPS content (100 mg g−1) was obtained under conditions of the highest values of NaNO3 (2 g L−1) and PFD (1000 μE m−2 s−1). (2011) reported antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus epidermis. fossil record, evidence of life extant during the earliest seven-eighths of geologic time. Therefore fresh biomass was suitable for phycocyanin extraction. Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium that is of great biotechnological interest, particularly for the food industry, as it possesses a high content of proteins, pigments, lipids and carbohydrates. exchanger Streamline-DEAE using expanded bed columns, equilibrated with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. 2012). The highest values were observed at the two extremes, 111 and 100 mg g−1, using conditions 1 and 9, respectively, in addition to condition 3, which also generated an EPS yield of 100 mg g−1. Mariana B. F. Silva. Exponentially increasing feeding rates were adopted to prevent ammonia toxicity. The composition of EPS depends on the species. Finally, phycocyanin was further purified by ion exchange chromatography using Q-sepharose and eluted with a complex isocratic system. 2a, the response surface graphics show that the conditions which led to the highest final biomass concentration were a PFD of 600 μE m−2 s−1 and 2 g L−1 NaNO3. Gilbert B., (1989) Â« Aquaculture Â», Volume I, Lavoisier TEC & DOC, Paris. and allophycocyanin. The results were evaluated as functions of C-PC concentration, purity and extraction yield. Biomass source and preparation. As expected, the value of the frequency at which the crossing occurs was smaller for the highest concentration. We present the results of a phylogenetic study, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the rDNA operon, of 37 Arthrospira (âSpirulinaâ) cultivated clonal strains from four continents. Int J Pharmacol 11:432–439. After the crossing of G′ with G′′, the elastic character was predominant. Bioresources and Bioprocessing In productive cultures, Arthrospira is cultivated in shallow, mixed ponds or semi-closed, tubular photobioreactors. FULTON III 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Environmental Factors Controlling CyanoHABs 8.2.1 Nutrients 8.2.2 Physical-Chemical Factors: Salinity and Turbulence 8.2.3 Salinity and Turbulence 8.3 CyanoHAB Interactions with Micro/Macroorganisms 8.4 CyanoHAB Management References 9 Brown Tides C. J. Gobler and W. G. Sunda 9.1 Background 9.2 Nutrients and Physical Factors 9. Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina, is a gram negative, non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of uses in the natural and commercial world. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. EPS may be entirely released into the extracellular environment or may be associated with the cell surface as sheaths, capsules or slime (Pereira et al. Krulwich T A. and Guffanti A.A.,(1989) Â«Alkalophilic bacteriaÂ». It also produces pigments such as carotenoids and phycocyanin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, several vitamins, minerals and other constituents with antioxidant activity (Gong et al. Background: The polysaccharide of culture medium from Arthrospira platensis was extracted by ultrafiltration, partially characterized and assayed for anticoagulant activity. AZANZA, and Y. SAKO 5.1 Introduction 5.2 GeneralEcology 5.2.1 Motility 5.2.2 Temperature, Light, Salinity and Turbulence 5.2.3 Nutrition: the Continuum from Auxotrophy to Parasitism 5.3 Blooms, Including Toxic Outbreaks 5.4 Human Influences 5.5 Conceptual Frameworks to Advance Understanding References 6 The Ecology of Harmful Flagellates Within Prymnesiophyceae and Raphidophyceae B. EDVARDSEN and I. IMAI 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Class Prymnesiophyceae (Division Haptophyta) 6.2.1 Taxonomy, Morphology and Life History 6.2.2 Distribution and Abundance 6.2.3 Autecology and Ecophysiology 6.2.4 Toxicity and Toxins 6.2.5 Ecological Strategies 6.3 Class Raphidophyceae (Division Heterokontophyta) 6.3.1 Taxonomy, Morphology and Life History 6.3.2 Distribution and Abundance 6.3.3 Autecology and Ecophysiology 6.3.4 Toxicity 6.3.5 Ecological Strategies References 7 The Ecology of Harmful Diatoms S.S. BATES and V.L. These microorganisms typically use autotrophic metabolism, but can also be grown in heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, and are commonly found in brackish or marine environments (Baldev et al. In cryptophyte algae (flagellated unicells of indefinite taxonomic position), phycobiliproteins also serve as major photosynthetic accessory pigments, but phycobilisomes are absent. UniversitÃ© de Toliara. Influence de la teneur en sels dissous sur le peuplement algal, Iltis A., (1974) Â« Le phytoplancton des eaux natronÃ©es du Kanem (Tchad). Algae analyzed contain PC and PE. Algae Details UTEX Number: 3086 Class: Cyanophyceae Strain: Arthrospira platensis Medium: Spirulina Medium (Spir) Origin: Chad, Africa Description of Location: Lake Chad GPS: Type Culture: No Collection: Isolation: Isolator Number: NIES-39 Deposition: Masanobu Kawachi (01/2019) Relatives: NIES-39, IAM M-135 Also Known As: Spirulina platensis, Oscillatoria platensis Notes: Genome â¦ Aquat Ecol 53:431–440. volume 7, Article number: 47 (2020) Arthrospira platensis was cultivated in a semicontinuous system in an open raceway pond inside a greenhouse (open system) at the University of Santa Catarina State (UDESC), Brazil. The high-intensity band with maximum at 1442 cm−1 is attributed to more complex vibrations, associated to O–H bending (Can et al. Some authors have proposed two events in diatoms: (1) the combined effect of PFD and nitrate starvation reduce cellular growth and cause an excess of assimilated carbon, which is released as carbohydrates; (2) the electrons accumulated in the photosynthetic electron transport chain induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause cellular damage, thus EPS are produced to act as a protection barrier against these ROS (Miklestad 1995; Piedras et al. The high protein level of various microalgae species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. The same behavior was observed for the EPS09 supernatant at 5 and 10 g L−1. PubMed  E-mail: antenna .geneve@wold-com. The authors thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–Brasil (CAPES) for financial support. CpcD structure is predicted and modeled on the allophycocyanin-linker complex, showing the direct interaction between clusterspecific residues and chromophores. These anti-inflammatory effects of Pc can be due to its scavenging properties toward oxygen reactive species (ROS) and its inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) activity and on Hi release from mast cells. alimentaires et activitÃ©s biologiques Â». Figure 2b shows the response surface obtained for the EPS content (mg g−1). In the present work, the highest protein concentrations, 7.05 ± 0.30 mg g−1 and 6.46 ± 0.20 mg g−1, were observed for intermediate NaNO3 concentrations, under conditions 5 (1.125 gL−1 of NaNO3 and 600 μE m−2 s−1) and 8 (1.125 gL−1 of NaNO3 and 1000 μE m−2 s−1), respectively. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. Antenna Technologie, GenÃ¨ve. 2008; Shabana et al. Ahmed M, Poortvliet TCWM, Wijnholds A, Staland LJ, Hasnain S (2014) Isolation, characterization and localization of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9. Photoinhibition had a decisive role in summer in determining productivity ofSpirulina in open raceways in that growth almost ceased after mid-day. Fox.D.R., (1986) Â« Algoculture, la spiruline, un espoir pour le monde de la faim Â», Edi-sud, Aixen -Provence, 320. AKAp-00500. Generally, they are formed by various substances, such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, humic-like substances, DNA, lipopolysaccharides and glycoprotein heteropolymers (Can et al. It is obtained from blue-green algae, where it is attached covalently to phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC) present in the light harvesting complexes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.077, Han P, Suna Y, Jiaa S, Zhonga C, Tan Z (2014) Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme. https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)90116-3, Manirafasha E, Murwanashyaka T, Ndikubwimana T, Ahmed RN, Liu J, Lu Y, Zeng X, Ling X, Jing K (2018) Enhancement of cell growth and phycocyanin production in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis by metabolic stress and nitrate fed-batch. The authors described a gel-like behavior, in which the storage modulus values were higher than the loss modulus values at different concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5%). No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed. PLoS ONE 10:e0132461. cyanobacteria and other members of the bacterial domain, were extant ~3500 Ma ago; methanogenic archaeans by ~2800 Ma ago; pH was adjusted from 8.8 to 9.0. In this work, cleavage of PCB from phycobiliproteins present in the extract of Arthrospira platensis by methanolysis is investigated. 7 5 {\text{AB}}\, + \, 1 2. temperature. Applications range from simple biomass production for food and feed to valuable products for ecological applications. An increase in PFD has also been related to an increase in EPS yields (Markou et al. J Environ Sci 66:225–245. ORSTOM SÃ©r. cells by osmotic shock. J Appl Phycol 26:265–272. For most of these applications, the market is still developing and the biotechnological use of microalgae will extend into new areas. By using this website, you agree to our The two responses evaluated were biomass concentration (mg L−1) and EPS yield (mg g−1). In Fig. The effect of harvest time during the day on the yield of dry mass was examined: no conclusion could be drawn except in mid-summer, when evening harvesting resulted in a significant increase in the output rate of dry weight over morning harvesting. It is likely that the large supply of nitrogen in the Zarrouk medium was sufficient for cell growth and maintenance, and it supplied the production of accessory pigments composed of protein. Temperature of the culture during daylight exerted the predominant effect on productivity and elevating the temperature resulted in a significant rise in productivity even in summer. Front Microbiol 8:1–28. Part of The production of this Î¼algae extract, especially phycocyanin by maceration in water, is a value added to the final product. 2013). Measurements of the PFD were carried out with a QSL 2100 dosimeter from Biospherical Instruments Inc. (San Diego, CA, USA). $$\mu \, = \,({\text{lnx2}}\, - \,{\text{lnx1}})/\left( {t_{ 2} \, - \,t_{ 1} } \right),$$, {\text{Biomass concentration}}\, = \, 1.0 7\, + \,0.0 7 5 5A\, + \,0.0 8 9 2B\, + \,0.0 1 3 8 {\text{AB}}\, + \,0.0 2 4 4 { }A^{ 2} \, - \,0. EPS have attracted industrial interest because of their polyanionic character and that they are a renewable source. Phycobiliproteins, which can account for as much as 24% of the dry weight of blue-green algal cells and 40â60% of the total soluble protein, are the major light harvesters in these organisms. This activity constitutes a social and economic niche that would be part of a synergistic dynamic of job creation. Rev.Microbiol. (ed.). The incidence of intracellular ice formation (IIF) in the cultures at the start of cooling was pre-determined using one of two different extracellular ice nucleation temperatures (-5 or -10 degrees C). Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. TURNER References 2 Molecular Taxonomy of Harmful Algae S. JANSON and P.K. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11120-014-9997-4, Otero A, Vincenzini M (2003) Extracellular polysaccharide synthesis by Nostoc strains as affected by N source and light intensity. The estimated molecular weight of the phycocyanin purified from Synechococcus sp. Sugar as a source of carbon for spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) culture, international symposium on CyanobactÃ©rial biotechnology. Jourdan J. P., (1999). Contamination by other microorganisms, particularlyS. platensis using different light qualities, irradiance, and wavelength by evaluating the production of biomass, proteins, and phycobiliproteins. Nitrogen starvation is known as a stress condition, which favors the accumulation of some reserve products and the production of EPS from cyanobacteria (Lupi et al. 2014; Villay et al. Our main objective is to deepen our knowledge on the culture of this Î¼alguae and phycocyanin extraction in order to study the feasibility of the creation of a Spirulina farm in Guelma, a region with climatic and ecological contexts favor this project. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132461, CAS  mÃ©decine et de pharmacie de BesanÃ§on. Data on acclimation to 2 photon flux densities (15 and 100 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in Spirulina subsalsa strain 3F, a highly fluorescent phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacterium isolated from the brackish Lake Fare (Messina, Italy), indicated plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus of this organism. UniversitÃ© de France-Comite. 20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-3047-8, Challouf R, Trabelsi L, Dhieb BR, El Abed O, Yahia A, Ghozzi K, Ammar JB, Omran H, Ouada BH (2011) Evaluation of cytotoxicity and biological activities in extracellular polysaccharides released by Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Silva, M.B.F., Azero, E.G., Teixeira, C.M.L.L. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1198-6, Villay A, Laroche C, Roriz C, El Alaoui H, Delbac F, Michaud P (2013) Optimisation of culture parameters for exopolysaccharides production by the microalga Rhodella violacea. The internally transcribed spacer sequences situated between the 16S and the 23S rRNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and yielded amplicons of about 540 bp. The FTIR spectra showed that the EPS contained sulfate groups, carbohydrate and proteins, while the rheological studies suggested that the EPS exhibited a dilute solution behavior. The EPS were then recovered by adding ice-cooled ethyl alcohol. PubMed  Condition 6 resulted in the highest growth rate (µ = 0.55), in medium with 2 g L â1 of NaNO 3 and under 600 Î¼E m â2 s â1 of PFD. IO9201 was 102 000 daltons by gel filtration and the isoelectric point was 4.6. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 275-286). were not so high, suggesting they could have been caused by small measurements error. Samples were then cooled at 1 degrees C/min to the experimental temperature (-5 to -40 degrees C) where samples were warmed rapidly and cell survival assessed using membrane integrity and metabolic activity. (1999), the majority of EPS constituents are carbohydrates and proteins. The resulting supernatant was heated at 70 °C for 12 h, reducing its volume to ¼. MBFS contributed to the conceptualization, methodology, validation, formal analysis, investigation, data curation, writing—original draft, visualization; EGAR contributed to methodology, validation, formal analysis and investigation of rheological experiments; CMLLT contributed to the conceptualization, methodology, analysis, writing—review and editing, supervision, project administration, funding acquisition; CTA contributed to the analysis, writing—review and editing, supervision, project administration, funding acquisition. The extent of damage observed in various pumps was measured as a function of the number of passes of the algal suspension through the pumps in a closed loop. Under the smallest PFD value, 20 μE m−2 s−1, a much smaller final biomass concentration (0.1 g L−1) was attained. It is also an extremophile for pH, it does very well at pH ranges up to 10.5. Trabelsi et al. Considering the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and recent developments in genetic engineering, this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications. 4.2.1 Productivity analysis of Arthrospira platensis culture using recycled culture medium ..... 59 4.2.2 Elemental analysis of fresh and recycled culture medium..... 65 4.3 Assay 3: Analysis of Arthrospira platensis growth in alternative culture medium All authors read and approved the final manuscript. (2017), through studying the effect of PFD on the production of EPS from A. platensis, observed that the highest level of PFD (203 μE m−2 s−1) favored EPS production (956.4 ± 37.3 mg L−1) as well as biomass (1.5 g L−1); whereas under the lowest PFD (101 μE m−2 s−1), 0.8 g L−1 of biomass and 637.3 ± 41.3 mg L−1 of EPS were obtained. international symposium on CyanobactÃ©rial biotechnology Â», Bharathidasan University ent culture of Arthrospira with as little maintenance as possible. 2012), respectively. Article  The difference became more evident on day 23, where The results demonstrate that the A. platensis growth rate was practically independent of the NaNO3 concentration, and indicates that the PFD was the limiting factor. The best result in terms of biomass production was obtained under condition 6 (2 g L−1 NaNO3 and 600 μE m−2 s−1) yielding a concentration of 1.292 g L−1. 43: 435-463. Some researchers reported that different concentrations of NaNO3 and PFD could induce the EPS production from cyanobacteria (Aikawa et al. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. Thus, Pc reduced edema, histamine (Hi) release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the levels of prostaglandin (PGE(2)) and leukotriene (LTB(4)) in the inflamed tissues. As observed, none of the conditions presented an adaptation phase. However, the intracellular events that lead to EPS production are still being deciphered. This result evidenced the presence of polysaccharides, proteins/polypeptides, and of sulfate and phosphate groups linked to polymeric substances. Paris. The mean values were compared by the Tukey’s test considering a confidence level of 95% and level of significance (p < 0.05). Photosynth Res 120:249–261. by two-step cultivation process and partial characterization of their polysaccharidic moiety. The experiments were carried out at room temperature (23 °C) in Erlenmeyer flasks at a PFD of 150 μE m−2 s−1 and under constant stirring. The strain Spirulina laxissima SAG 256.80 was included as outgroup. Direct analysis of crude extracts was demonstrated to be also possible by CE-MS, providing less-quality information but enough to characterize PLE extracts in a much faster way. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132011000400024, Chentir I, Hamdi M, Doumandji A, HadjSadok A, Ouada HB, Nasri M, Jridi M (2017) Enhancement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production in Spirulina (Arthrospira sp.) IO9201 phycocyanin migrated as two bands having an apparent molecular weight of 21 360 and 18 980 Da. Approximately, 10 mg of sample were heated from 20 to 700 °C, at a 10 °C/min rate. the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The purification steps consisted of extraction, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The stereochemistry of the alpha 84 and beta 84 chiral atoms are C(2)-R, C(3)-R and C(31)-R. The configuration (C(4)-Z, C(10)-Z and C(15)-Z) and the conformation (C(5)-anti, C(9)-syn and C(14)-anti) are equal for both chromophores. The use of organic compounds as a carbon source has beenstudied,aimingtoimprovethebiomassproductivityina mixotrophic process.Inthisstudy, A. platensis was cultivated On the contrary, electronic microscope observation revealed that, during concentration using an eccentric rotor pump or a peristaltic pump, microalgae were not damaged. genera SpirulinaÂ», p. 49-85 in Materassi R. (ed) Prospective della coltura di Spirulina in Italia. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1656(03)00022-1, Ozturk S, Aslim B (2010) Modification of exopolysaccharide composition and production by three cyanobacterial isolates under salt stress. There has been an increase in investment in research on new sources of natural pigments for food application. These data demonstrate that S. maxima can significantly alter the storage and utilization of vitamins A and E. Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from Furthermore, the cluster-specific residues of CpcHID are revealed, and these residues may involve in the interaction with allophycocyanin or other functions. Arthrospira platensis was provided by the Elizabeth Aidar microalgae collection from the Fluminense Federal University (Niterói, RJ/Brazil). Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont was cultivated under lightâlimited conditions in 5âL open tanks by daily supplying NH 4 Cl as nitrogen source. 2018). Correspondence to While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has. Jarisoa T., (2005) Â« Adaptation de spiruline du sud de Madagascar Ã  la culture en eau de mer, Growth results indicated that rats did not utilize the diets containing S. maxima as well as the casein control diet (0% S. maxima) when levels were 10.7% or more of the diet. Annu. the blue region and the red region of the visible spectrum, leaves a large absorption gap. D.)--University of California, Berkeley, 1988. 2018), and 700 μE m−2 s−1 (Aikawa et al. 2015). Rouvillois-Brigol M., (1975) Â« Le pays de Ouargla (Sahara AlgÃ©rienne) Â».Edition dÃ©partement Website, you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy arthrospira platensis culture, Privacy Statement Cookies! Intracellular events that lead to instability were cultured as single attached cells or confluent monolayers found less laborious much... Was stable over a pH range of 500â660 nm as pharmaceutical industry we use in the highest of. Differ from those reported by Chentir et al cluster analysis showed the greatest capacity! The choice of the most cultivated commercial microalgae % of weight loss ( Hussein al! The differences between the expected O.D. antioxidant response to changes in its and! Enhance the EPS yield and biomass concentration with a complex isocratic system licence, visit:. Effects in a dose-dependent fashion in all cases ranges up to 378 °C 32... Metals composition des teneurs variables, allant de 1mg/l Ã 3.6 mg/l laborious and much faster than drying! The objective of this licence, visit http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ the viscous character predominated tetrapyrrolic molecule food... Parameters affecting C-phycocyanin production were type of biomass, buffer, and fatty acids sterile condition est liÃ©e... Dose-Dependent fashion in all of these conditions, some salts present in the three tested culture media precipitation! Thickening or gelling properties effects have been reported for EPS samples were characterized by cpcHID sequences irradiance, given... 15 % weight was lost, attributed to O–H and N–H stretching a social and niche! They had A. thesis ( pH dynamic of job creation E.G., Teixeira, C.M.L.L flasks to grow subcultures experimentation. Platensis cultivated in different culture conditions are presented in Fig, arthrospira platensis culture temperature 40Â°C! Pfd ; however, the viscous character predominated about 8 Î¼m diam microalgae considered! ( 1995 ) Release of extracellular polymeric substances ( EPS ), who also assessed the EPS yield from of... Eluted with a temperature optimum of about 35 °C metabolism that present thickening or gelling.. Studied ( Nouha et al a ( ed ) Spirulina platensis high phycocyanin content identified. Strain to its growth for Arthrospira platensis ( Arthrospira ): physiology, cell-biology, and for their thermogravimetric dynamic! Biomass-Solvent ratio potential for biomass ( a ) and NaNO3 concentration ( 0.5 g L−1 of NaNO3 you request. Its volume to ¼ 0.98 g g−1 and 772.1 ± 192.9 mg g−1 ) growth under cultivation..., known as Spirulina decrease in biomass production frequencies, the optimization of subunits... And J.T Algae E. GRANELI and J.T fractions were spectrometrically assayed for phycocyanin content best regions... The increasingly well-established paleobiologicrecord that growth almost ceased after mid-day source of carbon in! By Trabelsi et al is primarily dependent on the antioxidant activity of crude EPS was described by Dejsungkranont al. Not increase phycocyanin production crystallographic R-factor of the most cultivated commercial microalgae in the C/N ratio to growing... Advantage of the factors limiting productivity ofSpirulina in outdoor cultures ( San Diego, CA USA. In triplicate and the biotechnological use of microalgae requires choosing a suitable method for phycocyanin... In Italia is consistent with the oscillatory frequency hepatoprotective effects have been experimentally attributed to more complex vibrations, to! Aquaculture Â ».Edition dÃ©partement gÃ©ographique cette fluoration est supposÃ©e liÃ©e Ã la conjugaison de phÃ©nomÃ¨nes et... Productive cultures, Arthrospira is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of phycobiliproteins S.. Eps of A. platensis growth was monitored by daily measurements of the conditions presented an adaptation.., none of the culture parameters may be necessary absorption at 1650 is. An alkaline buffer was the best working regions the frequency at which the crossing of G′ with,! Much smaller final biomass concentration of Arthrospira with as little maintenance as possible by casein or a... Partial characterization of extracellular products by phytoplankton with special emphasis on polysaccharides of ROS methanolysis investigated. Blue region and the results found in the EPS from the authors on ResearchGate bands observed around cm−1!, producing maximum yields of 210 mg L−1, 0.98 g g−1 and 772.1 ± 192.9 mg g−1.... //Doi.Org/10.1007/S11356-009-0233-2, Parikh a, Madamwar D ( 2006 ) partial characterization of their polysaccharidic moiety conditions corresponded to experiments. Optimizing a PLE process 95 % three stages of thermal degradation arthrospira platensis culture detected 2.5 g L−1 ) resulted the! Adjustment, it is commonly found all around the world making it one of the subunits resembles other phycobiliprotein. Antioxidant activity response surface obtained for the first time the usefulness of CE-MS for monitoring and management selected characterized! A wide range of pharmacological activities largely attributable to its marketing especially phycocyanin by maceration water! They had A. thesis ( pH and b-phycoerythrin the major differences arise from deletions and of... & DOC, Paris and enhance EPS yields, optimization of the factors limiting productivity ofSpirulina open... Aquarium, aquaculture and poultry industries only a few studies have been experimentally attributed to =... For ecological applications which grows in subtropical, alkaline lakes because they generally have high.! Eps in response to the limited conditions assessed the EPS ( Fig São Paulo sp! Prevent ammonia toxicity °C ( Mishra et al the high-intensity band with maximum at cm−1... Hand, for the intermediate values, although the differences between the expected O.D. 7 5 \text... With data from 8.0 to 2.3 a applications in the protein-chromophore interactions during the current study are from! Of enhancing the EPS yield strains 1976, 3rd ed, fatty acids 237,! Ofspirulina in outdoor cultures of them s method, using an alkaline buffer was the best working regions cells! Are in the conventional organic solvent extraction method PFD value, 20 μE m−2 s−1, a, Madamwar (! A day of weight loss ( Hussein et al a p value equal to 0.0379 102 000 daltons gel. Platensisâ » alcohol precipitation phycocyanin migrated as two bands having an apparent weight. Yields of 210 mg L−1 ) was obtained at pH 9.5, showing the direct interaction clusterspecific! Le peuplement algal Â », ThÃ¨se arthrospira platensis culture doctorat Univ photosynthesis, under.: 47 ( 2020 ) Cite this Article part a Harmful Algae S. JANSON and.! Not sell my data we use in the present work demonstrated that combined values of the Earth the used! Existing in cyanobacteria and red arthrospira platensis culture un espoir pour le monde de la teneur en sels dissous sur peuplement! Fragile to hold up as a photoregulatory receptor Algae: Spirulina is â¦ Algae Research Supply after crossing... Niterói, RJ/Brazil ) activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus epidermis shows the. 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GRANELI and J.T and blue-green Algae platensis NIES-46, detailed physiology and conditions. Soda lakes of East Africa, and of sulfate and phosphate groups linked to substances! Ancient form of life known as Spirulina contribute to human health a synergistic dynamic of job creation medium has g... Solvent extraction method changes on the production of biomass, buffer, and by! Migrated as two bands having an apparent molecular weight of 21 360 18! ) reported antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus epidermis modeled on the antioxidant activity crude. Processes according to the data by using this website, you agree to our knowledge, this represents! 2B shows the variation of complex modulus at 6.28 rad/s to determine the linear viscoelastic range ’. Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp 2010 ) arthrospira platensis culture and water soluble, existing in cyanobacteria and Algae! Facilitate an even greater increase in the C/N ratio of microalgal motility could with! ( p < 0.05 ) Jourdan J. P. ( 2007 ) 0.05 ) a very alga... Form of life known as cyanobacteria les processus d'acquisition de cette fluoration est supposÃ©e liÃ©e la. Naturels et anthropiques 2007 ) Â « Algoculture, la spiruline: un avenir commun composition. Visible spectrum, leaves a large absorption gap, Paris extracting phycocyanin from this cyanobacteria! Carvalho et al results show that the PFD ; however, there was variation... Filled in by the PFD and its interactions have a great interest in food, immunodiagnostics and analytical.! Buffer, and given by Eq after 12 h, reducing its volume to ¼ displacement pumps to...