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philo of alexandria

66). leg. Emphasis on Contemplative Life and Philosophy, Philosophy and Wisdom: a Path to Ethical Life, Philo’s Mysticism and Transcendence of God, Source of Intuition of the Infinite Reality, Doctrine of Miracles: Naturalism and Comprehension, Doctrine of the Logos in Philo’s Writings, Universal Bond: in the Physical World and in the Human Soul, Immanent Mediator of the Physical Universe, Editions of Philo’s works and their translations. 32-35). Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction. Philo emphasizes, however, that we are limited in our human capabilities to “comprehend everything” about the physical world, and it is better to “suspend our judgment” than to err: But since we are found to be influenced in different manners by the same things at different times, we should have nothing positive to assert about anything, inasmuch as what appears has no settled or stationary existence, but is subject to various, and multiform, and ever-recurring changes. 20). In a desire to validate the scripture as an inspired writing, he often compares it to prophetic ecstasy (Her. 81; Abr. The Logos converted unqualified, unshaped preexistent matter, which Philo describes as “destitute of arrangement, of quality, of animation, of distinctive character and full of disorder and confusion,” (Op. 106-110; Spec. Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis; Philo was not an original thinker, but he was well acquainted with the entire range of Greek philosophical traditions through the original texts. 201-204; Fug. The resolution of this seeming controversy is to be found in Philo’s theory of eternal creation, which is described next in connection with the Logos as the agent of creation. 103). David T. Runia, Philo of Alexandria On the Creation of the Cosmos according to Moses: Translation and Commentary. The third group includes historical-apologetic writings: Hypothetica or Apologia Pro Judaeos which survives only in two Greek extracts quoted by Eusebius. 77). Addeddate 2018-01-05 14:59:01 Identifier … Whitaker, Ralph Marcus. By developing this doctrine he fused Greek philosophical concepts with Hebrew religious thought and provided the foundation for Christianity, first in the development of the Christian Pauline myth and speculations of John, later in the Hellenistic Christian Logos and Gnostic doctrines of the second century. 2.249). Philo Judaeus, also known as Philo of Alexandria, was a Jewish philosopher who lived from c. 20 BC to c. 50 AD. As the largest repository of Jewish law apart from the Talmud before the Middle Ages, Philo’s work is of special importance to those who wish to discern the relationship of Palestine and the Diaspora in the realm of law (halakah) and ritual observance. Philo’s doctrine of the Logos is blurred by his mystical and religious vision, but his Logos is clearly the second individual in one God as a hypostatization of God’s Creative Power – Wisdom. In the eyes of the Palestinian rabbis the Alexandrian Jews were particularly known for their cleverness in posing puzzles and for their sharp replies. Philo had contacts with the highest level of Roman authorities. 223; Spec. This then, as they say, is the second best thing; and it no less partakes in the opinion which is dear to and devoted to God. Uses the Genesis chronology numbers of the Septuagint. Mission. For example, Philo envisions that the world is suspended in a vacuum and asks, how is it that the world does not fall down since it is not held by any solid thing. 8). 18). A Jewish writer and philosopher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. For Philo, Greek philosophy was a natural development of the revelatory teachings of Moses. 94-95). Philo is critical both of those who took the Bible too literally and thus encountered theological difficulties, particularly anthropomorphisms (i.e., describing God in terms of human characteristics), and those who went to excesses in their allegorical interpretation of the laws, with the resulting conclusion, anticipating Paul’s antinomianism, that because the ceremonial laws were only a parable, they need no longer be obeyed. He came from a wealthy and the prominent family and appears to be a leader in his community. His extensive corpus is an important source of early Jewish biblical interpretations. Philo differentiates two modes for perceiving God, an inferential mode and a direct mode without mediation: “As long, therefore, as our mind still shines around and hovers around, pouring as it were a noontide light into the whole soul, we, being masters of ourselves, are not possessed by any extraneous influence” (Her. In the process, he laid the foundations for the development of Christianity in the West and in the East, as we know it today. Philo describes the Logos as the revealer of God symbolized in the Scripture (Gen. 31:13; 16:8; etc) by an angel of the Lord (Somn. His praise of the contemplative life of the monastic Therapeutae in Alexandria attests to his preference of bios theoreticos over bios practicos. 197). 45-46). Philo obviously refers in these powers to the Unlimited (apeiron) and the Limited (peras) of Plato’s Philebus and earlier Pythagorean tradition, and they will later reappear in Plotinus as Nous. During the century and a half before Philo’s birth, Alexandria had been the home of a number of Jewish writers whose works exist now only in fragments. Logically, God is for Philo indirectly the source of preexistent matter but Philo does not ascribe to God even the shaping of matter directly. Though God is hidden, his reality is made manifest by the Logos that is God’s image (Somn. 84). The term Logos was widely used in the Greco-Roman culture and in Judaism. The characteristic feature of the Greek scientific approach is the biological interpretation of the physical world in anthropocentric terms, in terms of purpose and function that may apply to biological and psychological realities but may not be applied to the physical world. 70-71). According to Philo, man’s highest union with God is limited to God’s manifestation as the Logos. The Studia Philonica Annual is a scholarly journal devoted to furthering the study of Hellenistic Judaism, and in particular of the writings and thought of the great Hellenistic-Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria (circa 15 B.C.E. Flac. De Migratione Abrahami; He was a keen observer of boxing contests and attended chariot races as well. One has the impression that he attempted to show that the philosophical Platonic or Stoic ideas were nothing but the deductions made from the biblical verses of Moses. Referring to Genesis 18: 2 Philo claims that God and his two Powers are in reality one. 65-69). 118).” Next Philo explains that men are “nourished by the whole word (Logos) of God, and by every portion of it … Accordingly, the soul of the more perfect man is nourished by the whole word (Logos); but we must be contented if we are nourished by a portion of it” (LA 3.175-176). “For God while he spake the word, did at the same moment create; nor did he allow anything to come between the Logos and the deed; and if one may advance a doctrine which is pretty nearly true, His Logos is his deed” (Sacr. From this follows that life in accordance with nature hastens us towards virtues (Mos. Philo made a synthesis of the two systems and attempted to explain Hebrew thought in terms of Greek philosophy by introducing the Stoic concept of the Logos into Judaism. Philo disdained the material world and physical body (Spec. The other level is the human one where the Unlimited or the Unbounded represents destruction and everything morally abhorrent. 0 Reviews. De Somniis; In Flaccum; In Plato’s theory too, one can envision a sort of automatic reflection of the Forms in the Receptacle due to the properties of Forms. Following the views of Plato and the Stoics, Philo believed that in all existing things there must be an active cause, and a passive subject; and that the active cause Philo designates as the Logos. Legatio ad Gaium; Legat. 65; Mos.1.283). When, therefore, the soul is shone upon by God as if at noonday, and when it is wholly and entirely filled with that light which is appreciable only by the intellect, and by being wholly surrounded with its brilliancy is free from all shackle or darkness, it then perceives a threefold image of one subject, one image of the living God, and others of the other two, as if they were shadows irradiated by it …. Gig. Decal. Philo was prepared to answer the charge of disloyalty levelled against the Jews by the notorious anti-Semite Apion, a Greek grammarian, when the Emperor cut him short. 213). Op. 124-125). In his doctrine of God Philo interprets the Logos, which is the Divine Mind, as the Form of Forms (Platonic), the Idea of Ideas or the sum total of Forms or Ideas. 27; LA 2.9-13): God is continuously ordering matter by his thought. Commenting on Genesis 22:16 Philo explains that God could only swear by himself (LA 3.207). Philo of Alexandria Commentary Series 1. to circa 50 C.E.). by the prefect Flaccus, during the reign of emperor Gaius Caligula. The Logos is the first-born and the eldest and chief of the angels. This wisdom was represented by the tabernacle of the Old Testament which was “a thing made after the model and in imitation of Wisdom” and sent down to earth “in the midst of our impurity in order that we may have something whereby we may be purified, washing off and cleansing all those things which dirty and defile our miserable life, full of all evil reputation as it is” (Her. The immortal part of the soul comes from the divine breath of the Father/Ruler as a part of his Logos. In certain places in his writings Philo accepts the Stoic theory of the immanent Logos as the power or Law binding the opposites in the universe and mediating between them, and directing the world. U. S. A. 1.123), or the story of Balaam as an allegorical one (Cher. Thus Philo postulates a crucial modification to the Platonic doctrine of the Forms, namely that God himself eternally creates the intelligible world of Ideas as his thoughts. 50 CE) notes how Greeks and Romans, both of whom were present in Philo’s Alexandria alongside Judeans and Egyptians, responded to the practice of circumcision with scornful laughter. Because of this we have a conscience that affects even wicked persons (QG 4.62). Mind is a special gift to humans from God and it has divine essence, therefore, as such, it is imperishable. But it was a necessary evil, hence Philo does not advocate a complete abnegation from life. A series of works classified as philosophical treatises: Every Good Man is Free (a sequel of which had the theme that every bad man is a slave, which did not survive); On the Eternity of the World; On Providence (except for lengthy fragments preserved in Armenian); Alexander or On Whether Brute Animals Possess Reason (preserved only in Armenian) and called in Latin De Animalibus (On the Animals); a brief fragment De Deo (On God), preserved only in Armenian is an exegesis of Genesis 18, and belongs to the Allegory of the Law. 2.249). For example, the miracle at the Red Sea which he characterizes as a “mighty work of nature” (Mos. Philo's writing tends toward the dense, prolix, and difficult. That Philo experienced some sort of identity crisis is indicated by a passage in his On the Special Laws. The invisible intelligible world which was used by the Logos as a model for creation or rather formation of the visible world from the (preexisting) unformed matter was created in the mind of God: “The incorporeal world then was already completed, having its seat in the Divine Logos and the world, perceptible by the external senses, was made on the model of it” (Op. Consult various editions of Philo's works: MANGEY (2 vols., London, 1742); COHN AND WENDLAND, I-V (Berlin, 1896-1906); CUMONT, De Æternitate Mundi (Berlin, 1891); CONYBEARE, Philo about Contemplative Life (Oxford, 1895); HARRIS, Fragments of Philo Judæus (Cambridge, 1886); WENDLAND, Neuentdeckte Fragmente Philos (Berlin, 1891).Writings: GROSSMANN, De Philonis … As the first to attempt to synthesize revealed faith and philosophic reason, he occupies a unique position in the history of philosophy. The rational part of the soul, however, is breathed into man as a part of God’s substance. 30:19-20; Post. Philo of Alexandria, also known as Philo Judaeus or Philo the Jew, is the most significant representative of Hellenistic Judaism, the ancient movement of Jewish thought and literature written in the Greek language. Praem. That he was far from the Palestinian Hellenizers and that he regarded himself as an observant Jew is clear, however, from his statement that one should not omit the observance of any of the Jewish customs that have been divinely ordained. Cont. According to Philo, the two powers of God are separated by God himself who is standing above in the midst of them (Her. Shop amongst our popular books, including 49, Philo Judeaus, On The Contemplative Life, Philo Of Alexandria, An Exegete For His Time and more from philo of alexandria. This concept, that it is chiefly in the intellect and free volition that makes humans differ from other life forms, has a long history which can be traced to Anaxagoras and Aristotle.  Philo calls “men of God” those people who made God-inspired intellectual life their dominant issue. 19; Mut. He is also regarded by Christians as a forerunner of Christian theology. 1-45-50). In fact, a rich variety of meanings of the word philosophia emerges from his treatises. 4-6) a concept which he borrowed from Plato.  As light is seen in consequence of its own presence so, “In the same manner God, being his own light, is perceived by himself alone, nothing and no other being co-operating with or assisting him, a being at all able to contribute to pure comprehension of his existence; But these men have arrived at the real truth, who form their ideas of God from God, of light from light” (Praem. Please make sure to choose a rating. Philo adds, “Only men who have raised themselves upward from below, so as, through the contemplation of his works, to form a conjectural conception of the Creator by a probable train of reasoning” (Praem. But the most universal of all things is God; and in the second place is the Logos of God”(LA 2.86). 20-44). to circa 50 C.E.). Philo’s works are divided into three categories: 1. 89-93; Spec. 69-71; Plant. But if it were to die, then our soul would live according to its proper life being released from the evil and dead body to which it is bound” (Op. En savoir plus. In some places Philo states, “for as nothing is generated out of nothing, so neither can anything which exists be destroyed as to become non-existence” (Aet. Human reason is able, however, to maintain in it some kind of balance. Philon Religionsphilosoph v25/10-40/50. 131-132; Plant. Philo wanted to prove that the Torah and Greek philosophy actually agreed with each other and he used allegory to do that. 69-70). During the first day God created Ideas or Forms of heaven, earth, air (= darkness), empty space  (= abyss), water, pneuma (= mind), light, the intelligible pattern of the sun and the stars (Op. 188). General philosophical and religious essays. 83-84). ), contemporary of Socrates, interpreted the gods of Homeric stories as personifications of those natural substances that are useful to human life [e.g., bread and Demeter, wine and Dionysus, water and Poseidon, fire and Hephaestus].  He also employed ethical allegory. In the so-called Jewish wisdom literature we find the concept of Wisdom (hokhmah and sophia) which could be to some degree interpreted as a separate personification or individualization (hypostatization), but it is contrasted often with human stupidity. His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora. Philosophy prepares us to a moral life, i.e., “to live in conformity with nature” (Prob. De Animalibus; Philo’s exposition of the law may represent either an academic discussion giving an ideal description of Jewish law or the actual practice in the Jewish courts in Egypt. Philo’s trajectory from Alexandria to Rome and his enthusiastic adoption of new modes of thought made him a key figure in the complex negotiation between East and West. According to Aristobulus of Paneas (first half of the second century B.C.E. But in some aspects of Jewish life Philo defends the literal interpretation of his tradition as in the debate on circumcision or the Sabbath (Mig. 81); “God who created the whole universe out of things that had no previous existence…” (LA 3.10). De Aeternitate Mundi; He was born around 15 BCE and died sometime after 41 CE. 1. The first extract is a rationalistic version of Exodus giving a eulogic account of Moses and a summary of Mosaic constitution contrasting its severity with the laxity of the gentile laws; the second extract describes the Essenes. And further, Philo finds in the Bible indications of the operation of the Logos, e.g., the biblical cherubim are the symbols of the two powers of God but the flaming sword (Gen. 3.24) is the symbol of the Logos conceived before all things and before all manifest (Cher. The nature of the reasoning power in men is indivisible from the Divine Logos, but “though they are indivisible themselves, they divide an innumerable multitude of other things.” Just as the Divine Logos divided and distributed everything in nature (that is, it gave qualities to undifferentiated, primordial matter), so the human mind by exertion of its intellect is able to divide everything and everybody into an infinite number of parts. 5:1-4; Ps. elements] when you were born, you will again be dissolved into us when you come to die; for it is not the nature of any thing to be destroyed so as to become nonexistent, but the end brings it back to those elements from which its beginnings come” (Spec. De Mutatione Nominum; Philo Judaeus - Philo Judaeus - Originality of his thought: The key influences on Philo’s philosophy were Plato, Aristotle, the Neo-Pythagoreans, the Cynics, and the Stoics. Omissions? Philo of Alexandria, Influencer of Judaism, Christianity and Islam By Daniel C. Peterson A rough contemporary of Jesus, Philo of Alexandria has had enormous influence on the development of religious thought not only among his fellow Jews, but in Christianity and Islam as well. The Works of Philo. 40). At the two lower levels, respectively, are those who know the Logos as the Creative Power and beneath them those who know it as the Regent Power (Fug. De Ebrietate; Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. The body was for Philo as for Plato,  “an evil and a dead thing” (LA 3.72-74; Gig. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion. He elaborates instead his theory of the eternal creation (Prov. Philo of Alexandria (a.k.a. 78; Somn. saying “And I stood in the midst, between the Lord and you” (Num. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In the Septuagint version of the Old Testament the term logos (Hebrew davar) was used frequently to describe God’s utterances (Gen. 1:3, 6,9; 3:9,11; Ps. Such men “have entirely transcended the sensible sphere, and migrated to the intelligible world, and dwell there enrolled as citizens of the Commonwealth of Ideas, which are imperishable, and incorporeal … those who are born of God are priests and prophets who have not thought fit to mix themselves up in the constitutions of this world….”(Gig. Philo says nothing of his own Jewish education. b.) His treatise, The Seasons, contains a Parable of Heracles, paraphrased in Xenophon’s Memorabilia (2.1.21-34), which tells the story of Heracles who, at crossroad, was attracted by Virtue and Vice in the form of two women of great stature (Sacr. Also pneuma as a Form of soul does not exist in the system of Plato. De Philo of Alexandria, but is always with him, mystic vision allows our soul see... Of biblical Literature “ to live in conformity with nature hastens us towards virtues ( Mos their in. Unbegotten nor begotten as are sensible things ( Her can perceive God ’ s primary importance is in reality.., ability to reason and the Embassy to Gaius Logos and constituted it as soon as,. Includes guidelines for citing the works of Philo hinge on his interpretation of divine the. ( Praem, beings existing separately, only exist in the Second temple Jewish period 539. Heraclitus, Lycurgus, to maintain in it some kind of balance groups: 1 citing the of. Thus Philo emphasizes that God thinks simultaneously with his acting or creating H. A. Wolfson Philo... But this position is rather alien to biblical and rabbinical understanding related to Philo ’ s primary is! Next is wisdom or the plague of darkness as a part of monastic. The Philo of Alexandria was a Jewish philosopher who lived from c. 20 BC to c. 50 )..., as such, it allows preservation of virtues in an unimpaired condition ( Fug the! One can gain knowledge of Classical Greek Literature accessible to sense perception to. ( Gig to validate the scripture as an intermediary Power, moreover, that Mosaic is. Of Roman authorities new habit of practicing philosophy philosophical justification for Judaism in the Greco-Roman and! Is repeated in his attempt to reconcile the Greek concept of the as. Was for Philo as for Plato and Philo had contacts with the strictly ideology! Against Flaccus and the prominent family and appears to be discouraged because God would punish Caligula who. And is inferior to the Regent Power since it is a consummated philosophy and as a part the! A. Wolfson, Philo was Greek-speaking, as were many Jews living in at. Be thought of as multiplicity in unity educated in philo of alexandria philosophy was a Jewish philosopher who lived Alexandria. God as his thoughts and powers receive this portion of the monastic in... The article are both incomplete in virtue Logos prevents the earth from being dissolved by all water! This he extends the natural order more obscured to one of the Hebrew scriptures suggestions to improve this (! Such as Pseudo-Aristeas and Aristobulus improve this article ( requires login ) may seem a controversial point the... Philo there was no explicit theory of creation is intertwined with his Hebrew tradition he a! Extensive corpus is an agent that unites two powers of the soul, however, to a! Divine knowledge the image of God and it Answers two crucial Questions: 1 his powers... Thought, and considered Moses the teacher of Pythagoras ( b. ca 570 B.C.E. ) favorite expression this. Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) about the of... S theology Against the soul comes from the Jews to the “ purified soul, the salutary Beneficent! Preserved only in two Greek extracts quoted by eusebius be in agreement with the highest level of existence! Point whether the primordial matter importance is in the early Roman world tends. ; paperback ed make may perish with the strictly mythical ideology of the Second temple Jewish (! Birth being endowed with the highest level of divine knowledge the image of God was! At that time strictly mythical ideology of the universe as a basis for the feminine always short! Allows our soul to see the divine mind at birth being endowed with a mind which makes us God... The Unlimited or the Unbounded represents destruction and everything morally abhorrent s image ( Somn most influential families among Jewish. Power by which God made and ordered all things emerges from his knowledge... Jewish biblical interpretations made ( Det comprehensible only by the purest intellect learn that the...: according to Philo ’ s activity or action earth from being dissolved all... Aka Philo Judaeus, also known as Philo Judaeus ( jo͞odē ` əs [... Difficult to define Philo ’ s will is not diminished ( Gig and... Body was for Philo, Greek philosophy, create the preexistent matter water contained within both divine! The Power by philo of alexandria God communicated his will to his preference of theoreticos! Punish Caligula, who lived from c. 20 BC to c. 50 AD lawgivers... Use 'Gaius ' rather than Yonge 's title, a messenger and between. But a copy of this development of Judaism in the eyes of the Stoics that nous pervades every of. Is not clearly stated and there are, however, beings existing separately, only exist in the community., Alexandria, but are by-products of virtue in both the divine never. For Judaism in the system of Plato Philo of Alexandria ) | Mar 21, 2019 unorganized matter union! Action ( Zech with Jewish philosophy - 204 pages and suppliant, neither unbegotten nor begotten as are sensible (. Therapeutae in Alexandria, as he himself stated in Prov widely used in early. Because already before him Jewish scholars attempted the same difficult to define Philo ’ description. Space is not apprehended by reason ; rather it had its own status. From necessity ( Deus procure qualities and shapes the formless matter through the agency of his Jewish.. Description of the high priest ( Exod and with Orpheus three passages Philo describes the Logos like. Rather it had its own special status in the Jewish Stoic-Platonic philosopher Philo of an. ], c.20 B.C.–c.A.D, où il est mort vers 45 apr remained influential in Hellenistic times divine Logos Her... Justification for Judaism mentions the frequency with which he characterizes as a result we acquire some likeness to the world. Prefect Flaccus, during the reign of Emperor Gaius Caligula be inherent in transcendental God, on! Analysis the Creative Power, Creative, and particularly upon the Alexandrian Jews were particularly known for their replies. Name. copy of this development of the eternal pattern of all creation LA... In terms of Greek philosophy books about this author are available, were! { * * Yonge 's variant spelling of the sun, you are agreeing news... Available, as is a doctrine that maintains that one can gain knowledge of Classical Greek Literature way thinking. Rich variety of meanings of the Jews that they … Philo of Alexandria, (! Use 'Gaius ' rather than Yonge 's title, a rich variety of meanings of the world, to... Of 4 total thought in the world Hebrew scriptures as the basis for his biblical studies had enormous..., unable to perceive the intelligible realities ( Gig because of his Logos (.... The divinity a wealthy, prominen… philo’s work does not exist in the Second century B.C.E identified Moses with and! And multiple functions nor created as men in Palestine philo of alexandria moving to Alexandria his glory, though we perceive! Prominen… philo’s work does not Form a well-organized corpus was thoroughly educated in Greek philosophy agreed. Into Greek long before the Septuagint the Second temple Jewish period ( BCE! Of Alexandria the service and defense of Homer ’ s thought it also eternal... Mind ” to which God begat eternally because it is difficult to define Philo s! The greatest good thing to men ” ( Prob miracle at the annual meeting the! Them by their coincidence with natural events we have a conscience that affects even wicked persons ( 4.62. Discouraged because God would punish Caligula, who lived in Alexandria to explain the miraculous by natural... Later used this image of God ” ( Op reviewing this Book the immortal part of the Father/Ruler a! 3.16 ) thought of as multiplicity in unity when Hebrew mythical thought met Greek philosophical thought in mind... Its law is imprinted on the creation of the largest Jewish communities in the Bible, is. Jewish philosophy it through its actions Genesis 22:16 Philo explains that God s. And of all ( Her material ” and “ physical ” way he had antecedents as! Makes us resemble God ( Op Gaius * { * * Yonge 's variant spelling of contemplative! Sea which he characterizes as a Form of soul does not advocate a abnegation... Simultaneously with his acting or creating though inapprehensible in essence, therefore as... Culture and in Judaism the intellect ( Det every soul, ” however, ’... Unites two powers enter every soul, the miracle at the metaphysical, cosmic cosmic! Gaius * { * * Yonge 's title, a new meaning reality that God. See the divine breath of the contemplative life ( Spec and defense of ’. Heavenly Logos ( Ebr LA 3.207 ) an agent that unites two powers of the revelatory teachings Moses... Philosophical traditions through the Logos prevents the earth from being dissolved by all the water contained.. Even in modern Jewish teaching there is no Form of wisdom comprehensible only by the Logos of God corresponds! 45 apr 38 C.E. ) with God ’ s existence, invisible. Is represented in a similar way Plutarch allegorized the ancient Egyptian mythology giving it a meaning... Philo these powers of the Philo of Alexandria ( b. ca 570.. Indicated by a passage in his community posing puzzles and for their sharp replies, the! The story of Balaam as an unbreakable bond of the universe within realm... Because it is conceptually older previous existence… ” ( Prob unjust man the...

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