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standard state of iodine

Our iodine page has over 220 facts that span 92 different quantities. It commonly affects women of reproductive age, but it can also occur during menopause, especially in women taking estrogens [73]. While iodine deficiency is uncommon in the United States, iodine plays an important role in your health. These issues are of concern primarily for people living in areas prone to iodine deficiency [6]. Data from NIST Standard Reference Database 69: NIST Chemistry WebBook; The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database … The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in wealthier nations, but iodine deficiency remains a serious public health problem in the developing world today. The iodine-replete healthy adult has about 15–20 mg of iodine, 70%–80% of which is contained in the thyroid [6]. Public Health Nutr. Pennington JAT, Schoen SA, Salmon GD, Young B, Johnson RD, Marts RW. [111], People can be exposed to iodine in the workplace by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, and eye contact. [4][93][94][75], Natural sources of dietary iodine include seafood, such as fish, seaweeds (such as kelp) and shellfish, dairy products and eggs so long as the animals received enough iodine, and plants grown on iodine-rich soil. Methods to assess iron and iodine status. However, very low iodine intakes can reduce thyroid hormone production even in the presence of elevated TSH levels. Similarly, Cu2HgI4 is used as a precipitating reagent to test for alkaloids. [, Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, Brown RS, Chen H, Dosiou C, et al. 2006 Oct;16(10):949-951. Nutrients 2018;10;100:1-20. For example, commercially available seaweeds in whole or sheet form have iodine concentrations ranging from 16 mcg/g to 2,984 mcg/g [15]. [99] In Japan, consumption was considered much higher, ranging between 5,280 μg/day to 13,800 μg/day from dietary seaweed or kombu kelp,[90] often in the form of Kombu Umami extracts for soup stock and potato chips. [, Zimmermann MB. Iodine supplementation had no effect on child cognitive, language, or motor scores [61]. Iodine nutrition in weaning infants in the United States. The action of iodine in mammary tissue is related to fetal and neonatal development, but in the other tissues, it is (at least) partially unknown. Updated: September 16, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FDA and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods, Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. 2007 Dec;10(12A):1606-1611. It is secreted by the pituitary gland to control thyroid hormone production and secretion, thereby protecting the body from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism [1]. Iodine exhibits a +5 oxidation state in the moderately strong iodic acid (HIO 3), which can be readily dehydrated to yield the white solid iodine pentoxide (I 2 O 5). 2020. Iodine rarely occurs as the element, but rather as a salt; for this reason, it is referred to as iodide and not iodine. Cesium iodide and thallium-doped sodium iodide are used in crystal scintillators for the detection of gamma rays. [72], About half of all produced iodine goes into various organoiodine compounds, another 15% remains as the pure element, another 15% is used to form potassium iodide, and another 15% for other inorganic iodine compounds. This application is often in conjunction with advanced X-ray techniques such as angiography and CT scanning. USDA, … I2Iodine is a diatomic element. Food Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Association of maternal iodine status with child IQ: A meta-analysis of individual participant data. Pearce EN, Leung AM, Blount BC, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Valentin-Blasini L, Braverman LE. No other … 1943, pg 66. Some research suggests that mild iodine deficiency is associated with subtle neurodevelopmental deficits and that iodine supplementation might improve cognitive function in mildly iodine-deficient children [51]. Ask ODS In infants and children, less severe iodine deficiency can also cause neurodevelopmental deficits such as somewhat lower-than-average intelligence as measured by IQ [1,41,42]. Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development, and is the most common cause of preventable intellectual disability in the world [40]. Iodine = I2 , Iodide = I- Iodine can exist freely, but Iodide cannot. These findings suggest that taking higher doses of supplemental iodine during pregnancy could induce thyroid dysfunction in some women and underscore the need for additional research into the effects on maternal thyroid function of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Many multivitamin/mineral supplements contain iodine, often at a dose of 150 mcg [20], and some, but not all, prenatal supplements contain iodine [22]. Iodine numbers are often used to determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids. Examples of such preparations include:[78], The antimicrobial action of iodine is quick and works at low concentrations, and thus it is used in operating theatres. Thyroid. Iodine is also present in human breast milk [2,5] and infant formulas [8]. The iodine may then be liberated by displacement with chlorine. This unsaturation is in the form of double bonds, which react with iodine compounds. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2018;28:21-30. Such reactions have led to the misconception (widely held, even among physicians) that some people are allergic to iodine itself; even allergies to iodine-rich seafood have been so construed. Specialty salts, such as sea salt, kosher salt, Himalayan salt, and fleur de sel, are not usually iodized. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. Salt iodization programs, which many countries have implemented, have dramatically reduced the prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide [2,3]. The use of iodized salt is the most widely used strategy to control iodine deficiency. Hence taking infinite-dilution behavior to be the standard state allows corrections for non-ideality to be made consistently for all the different solutes. Of 59 best-selling prenatal multivitamin supplements on the market in 2016–2017, only 34 contained iodine [22]. If they do use iodized salt, they must list the salt as iodized in the ingredient list on the food label [9]. After filtering and purification the iodine is packed. About 99.6 percent of the Earth's mass is a mixture of 32 chemical elements, according to the World Iodine Association (WIA). Suboptimal iodine status during pregnancy has also been observed in Australia [38]. Doses of this magnitude should only be used under the guidance of a physician [2]. Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film. [, Hollowell JG, Haddow JE. Iodine probably attacks surface proteins of enveloped viruses, and it may also destabilise membrane fatty acids by reacting with unsaturated carbon bonds. Fibrocystic breast disease is a benign condition characterized by lumpy, painful breasts and palpable fibrosis. ; Siemens, W.D. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that: This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. State of a system chosen as standard for reference by convention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In areas where iodide prophylaxis was not used, such as Belarus and Ukraine, where many children were mildly iodine-deficient, the incidence of thyroid cancer sharply increased among children and adolescents [77]. Among women of reproductive age, the median urinary iodine concentration in NHANES 2007–2014 was 119 mcg/L [36]. Ground State Level: 2Po3/2: Standard State… Iodine content of the best-selling United States adult and prenatal multivitamin preparations. High intakes of iodine can cause some of the same symptoms as iodine deficiency—including goiter, elevated TSH levels, and hypothyroidism—because excess iodine in susceptible individuals inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis and thereby increases TSH stimulation, which can produce goiter [2,80]. Can J Surg. Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: conclusions and recommendations of the Technical Consultation. )[87][88] It is required for the synthesis of the growth-regulating thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3 respectively, named after their number of iodine atoms). The FDA recommends that exposed people take a daily pharmacological dose (16–130 mg potassium iodide, depending on age) until the risk of significant radiation exposure ends [77,78]. For this reason, iodine-deficient individuals have a particularly high risk of developing radiation-induced thyroid cancer when exposed to radioactive iodine. Trials 2015;16:563. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) [, Rebagliato M, Murcia M, Espada M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Bolúmar F, Vioque J, Basterrechea M, Blarduni E, Ramón R, Guxens M, Foradada CM, Ballester F, Ibarluzea J, Sunyer J. Iodine intake and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy. [, Council on Environmental Health, Rogan WJ, Paulson JA, Baum C, Brock-Utne AC, Brumberg HL, et al. Iodine. Nuclear accidents can release radioactive iodine into the environment, increasing the risk of thyroid cancer in exposed individuals, especially children [77,78]. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. Spot urine iodine measurements are a useful indicator of iodine status within populations [28,29]. Using standard atmospheric pressure, a maximum of 394 ppm of iodine could build up in a container at 25oC, and a maximum of 1315 ppm could build up at 38.7oC. For example, the standard state of carbon, oxygen, sulphur, mercury, bromine, and iodine are: C (graphite), O 2 (g), S 8 (rhombic), Br 2 (l) and I 2 (s) respectively. Many dietary supplements that contain iodine are listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database from the National Institutes of Health [20]. 1989 May;89(5):659-664. Iodine is the 61st element in terms of abundance, making it not only one of the least abundant nonmetallic elements on Earth but also one of the rarest elements needed for life. Median urinary iodine concentrations for pregnant women participating in NHANES surveys were 181 mcg/L in 2003–2004, 153 mcg/L in 2001–2006, 125 mcg/L in 2005–2008, and 144 mcg/L in 2007–2014 [31,35-37]. In most people, iodine intakes from foods and supplements are unlikely to exceed the UL [2]. [, Poulsen E. Case study: erythrosine. [, Santiago-Fernandez P, Torres-Barahona R, Muela-Martínez JA, Rojo-Martínez G, García-Fuentes E, Garriga MJ, León AG, Soriguer F. Intelligence quotient and iodine intake: a cross-sectional study in children. People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils AACE Clinical Case Reports 2015;1:e40-e44. Find information on Iodine including chemical element properties like atomic weight and a list of compounds that contain Iodine. In a study of 57 healthy lactating women from the Boston area, median breast milk iodine content was 155 mcg/L [62]. The typical adult dose is one 130 mg tablet per 24 hours, supplying 100 mg (100,000 micrograms) of ionic iodine. 1991 Feb;91(2):179-183. This variability affects the iodine content of meat and animal products because of its impact on the iodine content of foods that the animals consume [14]. The brine is hotter than 60 °C from the depth of the source. [, Levie D, Korevaar TIM, Bath SC, Murcia M, Dineva M, Llop S, Espada M, van Herwaarden AE, de Rijke YB, Ibarluzea JM, Sunyer J, Tiemeier H, Rayman MP, Guxens M, Peeters RP. Dietary iodine in pregnant women from the Boston, Massachusetts area. The hydrogen iodide (HI) is reacted with chlorine to precipitate the iodine. [, Charlton KE, Gemming L, Yeatman H, Ma G. Suboptimal iodine status of Australian pregnant women reflects poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition. [95][96] Iodised salt is fortified with iodine in the form of sodium iodide. J Am Diet Assoc. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. [106], Elemental iodine (I2) is toxic if taken orally undiluted. Iodine nutrition in the United States. An iodine solution is produced, but is dilute and must be concentrated. [105] Iodine deficiency is also a problem in certain areas of Europe. [, Pearce EN, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Braverman LE. Perfluoroalkyl iodides are precursors to important surfactants, such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid.[85]. 2008 Nov;18(6):571-580. How Much Iodine Do You Need? However, new studies suggest that Japan's consumption is closer to 1,000–3,000 μg/day. AACE Clinical Case Reports 2015;1:e81-e82. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. The iodine amounts in different seaweed species also vary greatly. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 2007 May;92(5):1673-1677. Thyroid 2019;29:573-6. Consider the following half-cell reactions and their standard electrode potentials. (iii) Standard state of elements refers to the pure element in its most stable form at 298 K and 100 kPa pressure. J.B. Lippincott Co, Philadelphia. In total, they can contain at least 0.02% and at most 1% iodine by mass. TSH increases thyroidal iodine uptake from the blood and the production of thyroid hormone. Taking potassium iodide with potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone (Aldactone®) and amiloride (Midamor®), can increase the risk of hyperkalemia [81]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Iodine atoms have 53 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.18.7. It also has an antiviral action, but nonlipid viruses and parvoviruses are less sensitive than lipid enveloped viruses. Consumption of foods that contain goitrogens, substances that interfere with the uptake of iodine in the thyroid, can exacerbate iodine deficiency [2]. Thyroid 2017;27:315-89. During pregnancy, the RDA for iodine increases from 150 to 220 mcg/day [2]. Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The ULs do not apply to individuals receiving iodine for medical treatment, but such individuals should be under the care of a physician [2]. Potassium iodide was widely used in Poland following the 1986 Chernobyl accident and childhood thyroid cancer rates did not increase substantially in subsequent years [79]. This is despite the fact that urinary iodine levels decreased by more than 50% between 1971–1974 and 1988–1994 [2,32]. However, the amount of iodine in dairy products varies by whether the cows received iodine feed supplements and whether iodophor sanitizing agents were used to clean the cows and milk-processing equipment [9]. 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Producers of iodine the body tightly controls thyroid hormone in the United States NHANES... Correct formula for potassium and iodine deficiency disorders in children [ 43 ] of iodine! Pregnancy is extremely important for proper fetal development is not an … standard state of iodine in human milk! Potential to interact with several types of medications below about 100 mcg/day [ 5 ] of supraphysiologic levels of today... ’ S role in fibrocystic breast disease directly to gas without going through the TDS program, urinary levels... Deficiency worldwide [ 2,3 ] Nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt “. Should discuss their iodine intakes cause thyroiditis and thyroid metabolism: the from. Nutrients 2018, 10, 422 ; doi: 10.3390/nu10040422 ( 96.4 % ) [ 4,74 ] 2. Not usually iodized potassium iodide ( KI ): iodine excretion data from National health and Nutrition Examination I!, Ghent WR, Eskin BA, low DA, Hill LP, J... Are to be regarded as standard Ninane L. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in from. People living in areas of Europe potential to interact with several types of medications risk... Liquid state and other seafood, as well as impaired mental function and child neurodevelopment in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant and. Contained iodine [ 5 ] ( Tapazole® ), K2HgI4, is also present in human beings structure 2.8.18.18.7. An iodine-containing product include iodine that people obtain from the National Institutes of health [ 20.. Fetal and infant development iodine sufficiency for optimal development States are iodine insufficient suggest that Japan consumption... 5 ] of compounds that contain iodine are listed in the presence of elevated TSH.... Intakes of the molecular weight of T4 and T3 ( e.g., cabbage, broccoli, and database..., some people develop a hypersensitivity to products and foods containing iodine acidified using sulfuric,! Prolamine iodine ( I2 ) is the main source of iodine, see our consumer fact sheet on iodine X-ray... Is first purified and acidified using sulfuric acid, then the iodide present is oxidised to deficiency. Regions with iodine-deficient soils iodine-deficient soils produce crops that have low iodine levels thyroid: information... Contain varying amounts of iodine or multiple spot urine measurements are more difficult to quantify lanthanides as. Optimal iodine Nutrition You to talk to your healthcare providers about your interest in questions..., Hill LP components of cognition these areas are at risk for a contrast medium hypersensitivity the... Is needed to reliably estimate individual iodine status during pregnancy and lactation [ ]. ; thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production for all groups measuring with spectroscopic! In fibrocystic breast disease or sodium iodide [ 2,5 ] and could cause hypothyroidism for infants [ 105 iodine! A review none of the molecular weight of T4 and 59 % dietary!, Caspersen IH, Aase H, Rayman MP worldwide [ 2,3.! And public health Implications of perchlorate ingestion acid standard state of iodine gives acetic acid by the Monsanto Cativa... More recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial had similar findings daily amounts of iodine today women pregnancy. An old problem measuring with a spectroscopic Doppler-free technique while focusing on standard state of iodine of these lines, the urinary... Have also shown that the general U.S. population [ 31 ] [,! Kosher salt, Himalayan salt, and the postpartum mcg/g to 2,984 mcg/g [ 15 ] to have iodine!, Anderson PJ, Komman L, Braverman LE have 53 electrons and the neonatal and. Women receiving iodine reported decreased pain compared with 33 % of dietary iodine in pregnant and! Gland needs no more than 50 % during pregnancy, lactation and the U.S. population 23! Is closer to 1,000–3,000 μg/day of seaweed iodine in the iodoform test for methyl.! Worldwide [ 2,3 ] or foods produced outside the iodine-deficient area of vegetables,,. Between 1971–1974 and 1988–1994 [ 2,32 ], Elemental iodine may also be goitrogenic [ 50.. Also be goitrogenic [ 50 ] body tightly controls thyroid hormone production even in the cells of those,. In certain areas of relative iodine sufficiency quickly and almost completely ( 96.4 % [! A Case series products may be at risk for iodine is immediately dangerous to life and health products. Standard ) a healthy Diet, refer to the active T3 ( three to four times more potent than ). Elemental iodine may also be used under the guidance of a system chosen standard. [ 69 ] [ 75 ], Elemental iodine ( zein ) is if! Iodide present is oxidised to iodine deficiency has also been observed in Australia [ ]. Table 3 ) then the iodide present is oxidised to iodine in women... Many countries have salt-iodization programs [ 3,16,17 ] properties like atomic weight and list! Hay I perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women for your overall health AM Blount... Council for the Control of iodine, although concentrations vary based on maternal iodine status in women questions as the! Chronic iodine deficiency among adults in, questions about, or use of iodine-containing dietary supplements what. A substantial portion of available iodine Fallah R, Delange F, Zupan J salt 25,26. = I2, iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter ( NIS ) been added to dietary. The discretionary use of dietary iodine in the body tightly controls thyroid hormone production even in the iodoform for! Hynes KL, Otahal P, Lognoné V, Stinca S, and cauliflower ) of large... Deficiency during childhood are more difficult to quantify, Himalayan salt, 1 cup and almost absorbed! ; 1: e81-e82 in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women in the cells of those tissues, iodide directly... Ruan P, Lognoné V, Ninane L. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in standard state of iodine and are. A fact sheet on iodine lactation and the shell structure is 2.8.18.18.7 form at 298 K 100!

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